Effect of program intensity and product involvement on advertising memory and liking in live broadcasting: Super Bowl broadcasting 1992-2012

  • Xiaojia Zhang

Student thesis: Doctoral Thesis


The effect of involvement with program context has long been an imperative factor in understanding advertising processing. However, contradictory theses and inconsistent findings demand better clarifications. This thesis bridges a gap between the key constructs of program intensity and product involvement in terms of TV advertising effects with the consideration of antecedents of program involvement. Following the “Cognitive Efficacy principle, the Wyer-Srull model, Limited Capacity Model and ELM model has been adopted to examine the theoretical frameworks of contextual and serial TV advertising position effects. With the emphasis on the concept of involvement, both situational and enduring involvement has been contemplated to explore the theoretical framework of TV advertising message processing. With the unit of analysis set at the advertised brand level, a naturalistic field study has been conducted to examine program intensity induced involvement (situational), product involvement (enduring) and audiences’ intrinsic involvement (enduring) effects on live TV advertising utilizing twelve years of Super Bowl broadcasting content analysis and survey data. The results have indicated that the advertisements subsequent to high intensity TV program contents are more likely to be memorized, yet it is moderated by product involvement. In other words the scoring segments would tend to have a positive effect on low involvement products and negative effect on high involvement products in terms of viewers’ memory. Additionally, the same effect patterns have been revealed on both high involvement (Fans) and low involvement (Non-Fans) viewers. However, the pattern of impact has not been witnessed on viewers’ attitude. The results have also validated serial position effects. The findings have revealed the dynamics created by program intensity and its interaction with product involvement on advertisement effects. The outcome also provided an in-depth understanding of TV ads positions for practical implications

Date of Award21 Aug 2015
Original languageEnglish
SupervisorXinshu ZHAO (Supervisor)

User-Defined Keywords

  • Advertising
  • Brand name products
  • Effective frequency
  • Super Bowl.

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