西周金文中稱呼為「師某」(「師某父」)的一類人，以前往往認為「師」是其官職。張亞初、劉雨的《西周金文官制考》一書將這些人與大師等放在一起，列為「師官類官」。前人在談及這一類人的時候，往往結合單篇的銘文對他們的身份進行確認，因此出現了「師」是「師氏」的簡稱或者「大師」的簡稱等看法。這些觀點由於取材範圍過窄，或者由於有結論先行的弊病，故而有失偏頗。西周金文中這些稱作「師某」的人是一類較為特殊的人群，他們的官職各不相同，許多人確實是武官，且有帶兵打仗的記錄，但也有一些人的職責與軍事無關或者不直接相關。西周時期的官制系統已較為成熟，不應出現一種官職名稱對應多種差別巨大的職責範疇的現象，因此「師某」的稱呼並非以官職冠於私名之上。職責差別之外，「師」的社會地位有高下的不同，並且上司和下屬、子輩和父輩祖輩可以同時稱為「師」，前者說明「師」不是一種尊稱，後者說明「師」不是一種世襲的爵位。在地緣方面，「師」大都集中在周人的兩個重要的活動中心----宗周和岐周。而在血緣方面，「師」表現出一定的家族性特征，在宗周和岐周也分別有一個由「師」組成的家族。「師」的家族具有著深厚的歷史傳承，是較為強大的地方勢力。總而言之，師是西周時期宗周地區對某些具有一定社會地位的有官職的貴族的稱呼，他們擁有一定的功業或者社會名望，同時也擁有強大的家族勢力。This dissertation takes issue with the interpretation that people in Western Zhou bronze inscriptions referred to by "Shi師X" (or "Shi師X fu父") had to have been officials because of these names, and argues against the view that these names were associated with or abbreviations of the offices called "Shi shi師氏" or "Da shi大師". Point in fact, people whose names were preceded by "Shi 師" had wide-ranging duties. They were military officers, secretaries, education officials, and even regents. The Western Zhou had a sophisticated official system, and it is unlikely that one position was set to administer such a multitude of tasks and duties. In addition, people of different classes and of different generations could be called "Shi 師", and a collation of all the data suggests that it was not an honorific appellation nor a hereditary title. Archaeological information from unearthed bronzes with inscriptions reveals that these people called "Shi師X" were centered mainly in Zong Zhou宗周 and Qi Zhou岐周, these two places being the political and religious centers of the Western Zhou rulers. I argue that "Shi" was a term used by nobles who possessed a certain amount of meritorious deeds or attained a certain social status.
|Date of Award||3 Jul 2018|
|Original language||Chinese (Traditional)|
|Supervisor||Adam Craig SCHWARTZ (Supervisor)|
- Inscriptions, Chinese
- History and criticism
- Bronzes, Chinese
- Officials and employees