Zinc, nickel and cadmium in carambolas marketed in Guangzhou and Hong Kong, China: Implication for human health

J. T. Li, B. Liao, C. Y. Lan, Jianwen QIU, W. S. Shu*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.) is a popular juicy fruit throughout the tropical and subtropical world. This study was designed to quantify the levels of zinc (Zn), nickel (Ni) and cadmium (Cd) in carambolas marketed in southern China, and further to evaluate the potential health risk of human consumption of carambola. Zinc concentrations, ranging from 1.471 to 2.875 mg/kg (on fresh weight basis), were below the maximum permissible concentration for Zn in fruit of China (5 mg/kg). However, Ni concentrations (0.134-0.676 mg/kg) were considerably higher than the related recommendation values. Furthermore, Cd concentrations in 51% of the carambolas purchased from Guangzhou exceeded the maximum permissible concentration for Cd in fruit of China (0.03 mg/kg). Our results implicated that the consumption of 0.385 kg carambola contaminated by Cd per day would cause the tolerable daily intake (TDI) of Cd by the consumer to be exceeded. In addition, the remarkably high Ni concentrations in carambolas should also be of concern. The status of heavy metal contamination of carambola products marketed in the other regions and their implications for human health should be identified urgently by in-depth studies.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)405-412
Number of pages8
JournalScience of the Total Environment
Volume388
Issue number1-3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 15 Dec 2007

Scopus Subject Areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Pollution

User-Defined Keywords

  • Carambola
  • Fruit
  • Health risk
  • Heavy metals

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