In this study, the PEG-derived VPO precursors were subject to water refluxing (90 °C, 8 h) and in situ activation in a steam-containing environment. For comparison, the VPO precursors without water refluxing were also activated in a similar manner. The IR measurement indicated that the majority of PEG in the precursor has been removed during water refluxing, and the VPO is essentially unenwrapped by PEG. The consequence is an increase of particle size and crystallinity of VPO as well as decreases in surface acidity and site density. The activation of catalysts in a stream-containing environment has an influence on the content of V5+ species and on the reduction behavior of the VPO catalysts. The VPO catalyst activated with 20% water vapor (by volume) in the feed shows the highest crystallinity. Compared with the non-PEG-derived VPO precursor, the PEG-derived one undergoes structure changes of higher severity during the water/steam treatments. The VPO catalyst generated from the PEG-derived precursor with water refluxing and activated with steam (20%) exhibited a propane conversion of 25% and a (AA + HAc) selectivity of ∼70%. The superior catalyst behavior can be interpreted in terms of the higher crystallinity of the (VO)2P2O7 phase, the lower content of V5+ species, and the milder surface acidity as caused by the water/steam treatments.
Scopus Subject Areas
- Process Chemistry and Technology
- Acrylic acid
- Maleic anhydride
- Vanadium phosphorus oxide