This paper presents the results of an investigation on association between dietary intakes and human milk concentrations of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and metabolites (DDTs) of two populations from Beijing and Shenyang, China. We analyzed human milk samples from 76 women and 287 composite food samples covering major food categories for concentrations of DDTs. We also collected information on food consumptions and calculated dietary intakes of DDTs of the participants on individual basis. The median values of the measured DDTs in human milk were 125 ng/g lipid and 132 ng/g lipid for the samples from Beijing and Shenyang, respectively. The mean (±standard deviation) daily dietary intakes of DDTs by the two groups were 32.0 ± 14.2 ng/kg·day and 27.9 ± 11.3 ng/kg·day, respectively. The temporal trends of decreasing in DDTs and increasing in DDE/DDT ratio suggested that the residuals were primarily from historical application. We found a significant correlation between human milk concentration and daily dietary intake of DDTs, while the dietary intake could explain 22% of the variation in the DDTs in human milk. In addition to dietary exposure, we also found that maternal body mass index (body weight divided by the squared height), body weight, body height and mother's age contributed significantly to the variation of DDTs in human milk after intake normalization. The result of a probabilistic risk assessment indicated that the exposure of infants to DDTs through breast feeding would be a public health concern for years to come, although breast feeding is still recommended.
Scopus Subject Areas
- Environmental Chemistry