University teachers’ conceptions of internationalisation of the curriculum: a phenomenographic study

Tracy X. P. Zou*, Beatrice C. B. Chu, Lisa Y. N. Law, Vienne Lin, Tiffany Ko, Michael Yu, Phoebe Y. C. Mok

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articlepeer-review

22 Citations (Scopus)


Internationalisation of the curriculum (IoC) is on the agenda of many higher education (HE) institutions worldwide. Typically seen as associated with a top-down strategy, IoC often meets resistance from university teachers, many of whom struggle to understand its relevance to teaching practice. This phenomenographic study investigates university teachers’ conceptions of IoC. Five conceptions ranging in sophistication have been identified. The least sophisticated focuses on making the curriculum content internationally relevant, whereas the most sophisticated centres around developing self-awareness, awareness of others, and a change in mindset in students. The latter is realised by embracing reflexivity and criticality and, more importantly, utilising societal and political issues as learning opportunities for identity development. Situated in the Hong Kong context, the findings not only suggest the need for teachers to shift their focus from curriculum content to value-based development but also for educators to reflect on their role in helping students to reconcile their identity in relation to their counterparts regionally and globally.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1–20
Number of pages20
JournalHigher Education
Early online date26 Oct 2019
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2020

Scopus Subject Areas

  • Education

User-Defined Keywords

  • Conceptions
  • Curriculum design
  • Internationalisation of the curriculum
  • Phenomenography


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