Unconscious integration: Current evidence for integrative processing under subliminal conditions

Zher-Wen, Rongjun Yu*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Integrative processing is traditionally believed to be dependent on consciousness. While earlier studies within the last decade reported many types of integration under subliminal conditions (i.e. without perceptual awareness), these findings are widely challenged recently. This review evaluates the current evidence for 10 types of subliminal integration that are widely studied: arithmetic processing, object-context integration, multi-word processing, same-different processing, multisensory integration and 5 different types of associative learning. Potential methodological issues concerning awareness measures are also taken into account. It is concluded that while there is currently no reliable evidence for subliminal integration, this does not necessarily refute ‘unconscious’ integration defined through non-subliminal (e.g. implicit) approaches.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)430-456
Number of pages27
JournalBritish Journal of Psychology
Issue number2
Early online date23 Jan 2023
Publication statusPublished - May 2023

Scopus Subject Areas

  • Psychology(all)

User-Defined Keywords

  • awareness
  • consciousness
  • integration
  • perception
  • subliminal


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