Ubiquitous occurrence of p-Phenylenediamine (PPD) antioxidants and PPD-quinones in fresh atmospheric snow and their amplification effects on associated aqueous contamination

Xu Zhang, Zifang Peng, Shijiao Hou, Qiannan Sun, Hang Yuan, Dan Yin, Wenfen Zhang, Yanhao Zhang*, Jianwei Tang, Shusheng Zhang*, Zongwei Cai

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

p-Phenylenediamine (PPD) antioxidants are heavily used for protection of commercial rubber products (e.g., vehicle tire), resulting in their widespread contamination in ecosystem. PPD-quinones (PPDQs), the toxic quinone derivatives of PPDs, are also discovered as novel environmental pollutants. However, the contamination characteristics of PPDs/PPDQs in fresh atmospheric snow (without deposition on the Earth surface) have seldom been studied. This work first reports the broad distributions of PPDs and PPDQs in fresh atmospheric snow collected from seven Chinese urban areas. Individual median values of detected concentrations were in the ranges of 0.4 to 260 pg g−1 (PPDs) and 0.7 to 104 pg g−1 (PPDQs). The concentration deviation by long-term deposition on the ground was eliminated. In most sampling regions, wearing of vehicle rubber tires was possibly responsible for spatial-dependent PPDs’ pollution level variations, and high concentrations of PPDs promoted PPDQs’ formation in snow from atmosphere. Yet, excessive O3 may further oxidize and reduce PPDQs in atmospheric fresh snow from Zhengzhou, which is different from previous research. Furthermore, snowfall was noticed might amplify concentrations of three PPDs and PPDQs in an inland lake, which possibly worsen corresponding pollution in water system. Current study elucidates the potential impacts of snow-bound PPDs/PPDQs on ecosystems should not be underestimated.

Original languageEnglish
Article number133409
JournalJournal of Hazardous Materials
Volume465
Early online date30 Dec 2023
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 5 Mar 2024

Scopus Subject Areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Pollution
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

User-Defined Keywords

  • Contamination characteristics
  • PPD antioxidants
  • PPDQs
  • Snow amplification effects
  • Urban fresh atmospheric snow

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