|Title of host publication||The International Encyclopedia of Geography|
|Subtitle of host publication||People, the Earth, Environment, and Technology|
|Editors||Douglas Richardson, Noel Castree, Michael F. Goodchild, Audrey Kobayashi, Weidong Liu, Richard A. Marston|
|Publisher||John Wiley & Sons Ltd.|
|Number of pages||7|
|Publication status||Published - 6 Mar 2017|
Transportation history focuses on technological innovations and their impacts on mobility, the economy, and society. Three key transport innovations took place before the Industrial Revolution: the mastery of wind power in river and maritime transport; the employment of animal power for land transport; and the invention of the wheel. The increase of speed and capacity of passenger and freight transport not only influenced trade and production patterns, but was also crucial to immigration and empire building. The Industrial Revolution brought steam power, the internal combustion engine, and electric power as technologies supporting the development of transportation systems such as maritime shipping, railways, highways, and then air transportation.