Multicomponent metabolic profile of notoginseng saponins in artificial gastric juice was qualitatively and quantitatively investigated, showing that ginsenosides were transformed via multiple pathways including deglycosylation, dehydration, hydration, and oxygenation. A total of 83 metabolites was identified by using UPLC-Q-TOF-MS, among which 16 new dammarane glycosides were further characterized by comparing with synthesized authentic compounds. Transformation time-course of notoginseng saponins in artificial gastric juice was quantitatively measured for the first time, showing rapid degradation of primary ginsenosides and concomitant formation of deglycosylation, hydration, and dehydration products. It was further demonstrated that the resultant metabolites exhibited enhanced cytotoxicity toward cancer cells. The extensive metabolism of ginsenosides within a transit time span in stomach, together with the formation of metabolites with diversified chemical structures possessing enhanced biological activities, indicated an important role of transformation in gastric juice in the systematic effects of ginsenosides.
Scopus Subject Areas
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
- gastric juice