Toward Optimal Load Prediction and Customizable Autoscaling Scheme for Kubernetes

Subrota Kumar Mondal*, Xiaohai Wu, Hussain Mohammed Dipu Kabir, Hong Ning Dai, Kan Ni, Honggang Yuan, Ting Wang

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Most enterprise customers now choose to divide a large monolithic service into large numbers of loosely-coupled, specialized microservices, which can be developed and deployed separately. Docker, as a light-weight virtualization technology, has been widely adopted to support diverse microservices. At the moment, Kubernetes is a portable, extensible, and open-source orchestration platform for managing these containerized microservice applications. To adapt to frequently changing user requests, it offers an automated scaling method, Horizontal Pod Autoscaler (HPA), that can scale itself based on the system’s current workload. The native reactive auto-scaling method, however, is unable to foresee the system workload scenario in the future to complete proactive scaling, leading to QoS (quality of service) violations, long tail latency, and insufficient server resource usage. In this paper, we suggest a new proactive scaling scheme based on deep learning approaches to make up for HPA’s inadequacies as the default autoscaler in Kubernetes. After meticulous experimental evaluation and comparative analysis, we use the Gated Recurrent Unit (GRU) model with higher prediction accuracy and efficiency as the prediction model, supplemented by a stability window mechanism to improve the accuracy and stability of the prediction model. Finally, with the third-party custom autoscaling framework, Custom Pod Autoscaler (CPA), we packaged our custom autoscaling algorithm into a framework and deployed the framework into the real Kubernetes cluster. Comprehensive experiment results prove the feasibility of our autoscaling scheme, which significantly outperforms the existing Horizontal Pod Autoscaler (HPA) approach.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2675
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 12 Jun 2023

Scopus Subject Areas

  • Computer Science (miscellaneous)
  • Mathematics(all)
  • Engineering (miscellaneous)

User-Defined Keywords

  • autoscaling
  • cloud computing
  • Docker
  • Kubernetes
  • load prediction


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