We introduce three kinds of column-vector Lie algebras L s(s=1,2,3). By making invertible linear transformations we get the corresponding three induced Lie algebras. According to the defined loop algebras L̃ s of the Lie algebras Ls(s=1,2,3), we establish three various isospectral problems. Then by applying Tu scheme, we obtain three different coupling integrable couplings of the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) hierarchy and further reduce them to three kinds of explicit coupling integrable couplings of the KdV equation. One of the coupling integrable couplings of the KdV hierarchy of evolution equations possesses Hamiltonian structure obtained by using the quadratic-form identity and it is Liouville integrable.
Scopus Subject Areas
- Statistical and Nonlinear Physics
- Mathematical Physics