This synthesis review examined 189 qualified studies on norms and smoking in terms of conceptual frameworks, types of social norms, research designs, dependent variables, independent variables and covariates, and findings related to norms. Results show that 7.9% were experimental, and the remaining were cross-sectional. By far, the reasoned action approach (RAA) was the most-cited theory, but RAA was not used to guide experimental designs. The social norms approach, norm focus theory, social cognitive theory guided the intervention experiments. Harmful norms were more frequently examined than healthful norms. Pro-smoking norms positively predicted smoking intentions and behaviors, whereas antismoking norms positively predicted antismoking intentions and behaviors. The over-application of RAA in cross-sectional antismoking research has yielded repetitive findings. Norm-based experiments can adopt other theoretical perspectives to offer insights into antismoking interventions. The RAA constructs are still applicable and can be integrated into intervention designs.
Scopus Subject Areas
- Health(social science)