儒生遇仙: 劉晨阮肇傳說在元明語境的時代意義

Translated title of the contribution: The Romantic Encounter between the Confucian Students and the Fairies: Liu Chen and Ruan Zhao’s Adventurous Sojourn in the Yuan-Ming Period

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

南朝宋劉義慶(403–444)所編《幽明錄》中所載劉晨阮肇入山的奇遇故事,經歷代文人引用、改編和重寫,孕生出新的文學生命和時代意義。本文選取撰成於明代,以元代為背景的三個相關文本作為研究對象—吳昌齡的〈張天師斷風花雪月〉雜劇、王子一的〈劉晨阮肇悞入天台〉雜劇、題為《元趙蒼雲劉晨阮肇入天台山圖卷》的畫卷及畫上題字,探討劉阮故事在這些改寫文本中的時代意義。

元代獨特的政治環境為劉阮的「重生」提供了特殊的土壤,種植出帶有鮮明時代色彩的作品,並透露著作家的政治態度。本文選取的三個文本所灌注的思想,代表當明朝人回望前朝歷史時所抒發的感慨,從不同角度為元代士人對於身處異族統治下的態度作藝術化的表述,在引用、改寫劉阮故事時,賦予了新的藝術生命。這種情緒,經明朝文人反思、整理後,表現為身處蒙元統治下的儒生對改朝換代之悲和仕途失意之憤的藝術表現,具有獨特的時代意義,使這個文學傳統再一次綻放光芒。

Liu Chen and Ruan Zhao’s adventurous sojourn in the mountains first appeared in Records of the Formed and Formless Spirits (Youming lu) compiled by Liu Yiqing (403–444) and gave rise to new lives and significance in later allusions to and adaptations of the tale. The present essay studies three such “decedent” works and attempts to examine the new lives created by their respective authors. These three works are: a Ming-dynasty zaju play, “Celestial Master Zhang’s Verdict on Breeze, Blossom, Snow, and the Moon” by Wu Changling; a Yuan-dynasty zaju play, “Liu Chen and Ruan Zhao’s Accidental Entering of Mount Tiantai” by Wang Ziyi; and a painting titled Liu Chen and Ruan Zhao Entering the Tiantai Mountains along with its postscript by Zhao Cangyun of the Yuan dynasty.

The special political environment of the Yuan dynasty became unique soils for the “resurrection” of Liu and Ruan, as works with this background are deeply tinted by the zeitgeist and the author’s political stance. The three texts selected for the present analysis were authored by writers who had lived through the Yuan and Ming transition. These works from the Ming times invested a new life in the Liu-Ruan tale in their artistic representations of the stereotypical discontent of Yuan intellectuals under the oppression of the Mongolian rulers. This discontent underwent these Ming literati’s nostalgic rumination and adaptation, and was converted to new artistic representations of Yuan intellectuals’ laments over the downfall of their home dynasty and their career failures. The content reveals a unique significance of the time by bringing back to life the theme of the LiuRuan tale with new reflection.
Translated title of the contributionThe Romantic Encounter between the Confucian Students and the Fairies: Liu Chen and Ruan Zhao’s Adventurous Sojourn in the Yuan-Ming Period
Original languageChinese (Traditional)
Pages (from-to)41-62
Number of pages22
Journal中國文化研究所學報
Issue number67
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2018

User-Defined Keywords

  • 劉晨阮肇
  • 雜劇
  • 繪畫
  • 文學改編
  • 時代意義
  • Liu Chen and Ruan Zhao
  • zaju plays
  • painting
  • literary adaptation
  • zeitgeist

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