The Role of Regulatory Fit in Framing Effective Negative Feedback Across Cultures

Franki Y.H. Kung, Young Hoon Kim*, Daniel Y.J. Yang, Shirley Y Y CHENG

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)


Giving effective negative feedback is not only important but also challenging. Often people struggle as to how; and perhaps even more so when the feedback receiver comes from a different culture. Building on the regulatory fit theory, the current research examined how negative feedback framing (gain- vs. loss framed) would affect feedback receivers’ motivation as a function of their regulatory focus. We found that European Americans were in general more promotion-focused than Chinese (Study 1) and Indians (Study 2), such that promotion-focused (vs. prevention-focused) participants showed higher motivation after receiving gain-framed (vs. loss-framed) negative feedback. Across two studies, with student and work samples, our findings answered the question of how to give more effective negative feedback and suggested that regulatory fit can be a universal strategy for increasing motivation across the East and West.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)696-712
Number of pages17
JournalJournal of Cross-Cultural Psychology
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2016

Scopus Subject Areas

  • Social Psychology
  • Cultural Studies
  • Anthropology

User-Defined Keywords

  • culture
  • message framing
  • motivation
  • negative feedback
  • regulatory fit


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