The Role of Regulatory Fit in Framing Effective Negative Feedback Across Cultures

Franki Y.H. Kung, Young Hoon Kim*, Daniel Y.J. Yang, Shirley Y Y CHENG

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articlepeer-review

    16 Citations (Scopus)


    Giving effective negative feedback is not only important but also challenging. Often people struggle as to how; and perhaps even more so when the feedback receiver comes from a different culture. Building on the regulatory fit theory, the current research examined how negative feedback framing (gain- vs. loss framed) would affect feedback receivers’ motivation as a function of their regulatory focus. We found that European Americans were in general more promotion-focused than Chinese (Study 1) and Indians (Study 2), such that promotion-focused (vs. prevention-focused) participants showed higher motivation after receiving gain-framed (vs. loss-framed) negative feedback. Across two studies, with student and work samples, our findings answered the question of how to give more effective negative feedback and suggested that regulatory fit can be a universal strategy for increasing motivation across the East and West.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)696-712
    Number of pages17
    JournalJournal of Cross-Cultural Psychology
    Issue number5
    Publication statusPublished - Jun 2016

    Scopus Subject Areas

    • Social Psychology
    • Cultural Studies
    • Anthropology

    User-Defined Keywords

    • culture
    • message framing
    • motivation
    • negative feedback
    • regulatory fit


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