The Love of Money and Pay Level Satisfaction: Measurement and Functional Equivalence in 29 Geopolitical Entities around the World

Thomas Li Ping Tang, Toto Sutarso, Adebowale Akande, Michael W. Allen, Abdulgawi Salim Alzubaidi, Mahfooz A. Ansari, Fernando Arias-Galicia, Mark G. Borg, Luigina Canova, Brigitte Charles-Pauvers, Bor Shiuan Cheng, Randy K CHIU, Linzhi Du, Ilya Garber, Consuelo Garcia De La Torre, Rosario Correia Higgs, Abdul Hamid Safwat Ibrahim, Chin Kang Jen, Ali Mahdi Kazem, Kilsun KimVivien Kim Geok Lim, Roberto Luna-Arocas, Eva Malovics, Anna Maria Manganelli, Alice S. Moreira, Anthony Ugochukwu Obiajulu Nnedum, Johnsto E. Osagie, AAhad M. Osman-Gani, Francisco Costa Pereira, Ruja Pholsward, Horia D. Pitariu, Marko Polic, Elisaveta Sardzoska, Petar Skobic, Allen F. Stembridge, Theresa Li Na Tang, Thompson Sian Hin Teo, Marco Tombolani, Martina Trontelj, Caroline Urbain, Peter Vlerick

    Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articlepeer-review

    73 Citations (Scopus)


    Demonstrating the equivalence of constructs is a key requirement for cross- cultural empirical research. The major purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how to assess measurement and functional equivalence or invariance using the 9-item, 3-factor Love of Money Scale (LOMS, a second-order factor model) and the 4-item, 1-factor Pay Level Satisfaction Scale (PLSS, a first-order factor model) across 29 samples in six continents (N = 5973). In step 1, we tested the configural, metric and scalar invariance of the LOMS and 17 samples achieved measurement invariance. In step 2, we applied the same procedures to the PLSS and nine samples achieved measurement invariance. Five samples (Brazil, China, South Africa, Spain and the USA) passed the measurement invariance criteria for both measures. In step 3, we found that for these two measures, common method variance was non-significant. In step 4, we tested the functional equivalence between the Love of Money Scale and Pay Level Satisfaction Scale. We achieved functional equivalence for these two scales in all five samples. The results of this study suggest the critical importance of evaluating and establishing measurement equivalence in cross-cultural studies. Suggestions for remedying measurement non-equivalence are offered.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)423-452
    Number of pages30
    JournalManagement and Organization Review
    Issue number3
    Publication statusPublished - 2006

    Scopus Subject Areas

    • Business and International Management
    • Strategy and Management

    User-Defined Keywords

    • 29 geopolitical entities
    • cross-cultural empirical research
    • functional equivalence
    • measurement invariance
    • pay level satisfaction
    • the love of money


    Dive into the research topics of 'The Love of Money and Pay Level Satisfaction: Measurement and Functional Equivalence in 29 Geopolitical Entities around the World'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

    Cite this