The Law of Non-contradiction and Global Philosophy of Religion

Andrew Ter Ern Loke*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articlepeer-review


This article focuses on the applications of philosophical logic in the discipline of philosophy of religion of both ‘Eastern’ and ‘Western’ traditions, in which the problem of apparent ontological contradictions can be found. A number of philosophers have proposed using the work of those non-classical logicians who countenance the violation of the law of non-contradiction (LNC) to address this problem. I discuss (1) whether classical or non-classical account of logic is universal in applying to all true theories, and (2) whether there might be extra-logical considerations which affect what is the correct account of logic for the doctrines in question. With regard to Jc Beall’s application of non-classical (FDE) logic to the doctrine of the Incarnation, I argue using the evidence from the writings of church fathers that the meaning of negation found in the core claims of the doctrine of the Incarnation should not be interpreted in accordance with Beall’s FDE account, and that this extra-logical consideration refutes Beall’s project. Moreover, the FDE’s acceptance of the possibility of statements that are both true and false is contrary to what is allowed by the definition of negation in classical logic; therefore (contrary to Beall), Beall is in fact using a different definition of negation compared with the definition used by the classical account. I develop this point in interaction with contemporary philosophy of religion literature and explain its implications and significance for this discipline.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages17
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 13 Feb 2024

Scopus Subject Areas

  • Philosophy
  • Religious studies

User-Defined Keywords

  • Christology
  • Dialetheism
  • Eastern religions
  • Global Philosophy of Religion
  • Law of non-contradiction


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