Pancreatic cancer is amongst the most lethal malignancies, while its poor prognosis could be associated with promotion of autophagy and the tumor immune microenvironment. Studies have confirmed the pro-tumorigenic nature of the cathelicidin family of peptide LL-37 in several types of cancer. However, at higher doses, LL-37 exerts significant cytotoxicity against gastrointestinal cancer cells. In our study, we investigated the anti-tumorigenic potential of LL-37 in pancreatic cancer and the underlying mechanisms. Our results have shown that LL-37 inhibited the growth of pancreatic cancer both in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistic studies have demonstrated that LL-37 induced DNA damage and cell cycle arrest through induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Further study indicates that LL-37 suppressed autophagy in pancreatic cancer cells through activation of mTOR signaling, leading to more accumulation of ROS production and induction of mitochondrial dysfunctions. With combined treatment of LL-37 with the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin, LL-37-induced ROS production and cancer cell growth inhibition were attenuated. Subsequent in vivo study has shown that LL-37 downregulated the immunosuppressive myeloid-derived suppressor cells and M2 macrophages while upregulated the anti-cancer effectors CD8+ and CD4+ T cells in the tumor microenvironment. By using an in vitro co-culture system, it was shown that promotion of M2 macrophage polarization would be suppressed by LL-37 with inhibition of autophagy, which possessed significant negative impact on cancer growth. Taken together, our findings implicate that LL-37 could attenuate the development of pancreatic cancer by suppressing autophagy and reprogramming of the tumor immune microenvironment.
Scopus Subject Areas
- Pharmacology (medical)
- mTOR signaling
- pancreatic cancer
- tumor immune microenvironment