The Effect of Demographic Factors on the Implementation of Quality Physical Education

Keri S Kulik, Hannah J. Brewer, Julien Baker

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articlepeer-review


The Society of Health and Physical Educators (SHAPE) has developed specific guidelines for quality physical education, including recommendations for the amount of instruction time, teacher qualifications and instructional facilities. The focus of this study was to describe these components in high schools, and to determine whether there are demographic characteristics of the school (size, location, and socio economic status (SES)) that affect these components. An electronic survey that assessed instruction time, teacher qualifications, and facilities was completed by 39 public high schools in Southwestern Pennsylvania, USA. The demographic factors of the schools were classified based on size, location and SES. Results suggest that the schools do not meet the specific SHAPE guidelines for instruction time; however, they meet the requirements for teacher qualifications and instructional facilities. Moreover, the pattern of results does not appear to be affected by school size, location or SES. While this study found no significant effect of the demographic factors on the SHAPE components, this lack of association may be misleading because the survey instrument assessed physical education instruction time rather than physical activity. Much of current literature has focused on the influence of demographic factors on participation in physical activity rather than instruction time.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-13
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Physical Education and Sports Management
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2019


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