The diversity and evolution of pollination systems in large plant clades: Apocynaceae as a case study

Jeff Ollerton*, Sigrid Liede-Schumann, Mary E Endress, Ulrich Meve, André Rodrigo Rech, Adam Shuttleworth, Héctor A Keller, Mark Fishbein, Leonardo O Alvarado-Cárdenas, Felipe W Amorim, Peter Bernhardt, Ferhat Celep, Yolanda Chirango, Fidel Chiriboga-Arroyo, Laure Civeyrel, Andrea Cocucci, Louise Cranmer, Inara Carolina da Silva-Batista, Linde de Jager, Mariana Scaramussa DepráArthur Domingos-Melo, Courtney Dvorsky, Kayna Agostini, Leandro Freitas, Maria Cristina Gaglianone, Leo Galetto, Mike Gilbert, Ixchel González-Ramírez, Pablo Gorostiague, David Goyder, Leandro Hachuy-Filho, Annemarie Heiduk, Aaron Howard, Gretchen Ionta, Sofia C Islas-Hernández, Steven D Johnson, Lize Joubert, Christopher N Kaiser-Bunbury, Susan Kephart, Aroonrat Kidyoo, Suzanne Koptur, Cristiana Koschnitzke, Ellen Lamborn, Tatyana Livshultz, Isabel Cristina Machado, Salvador Marino, Lumi Mema, Ko Mochizuki, Leonor Patrícia Cerdeira Morellato, Chediel K Mrisha, Evalyne W Muiruri, Naoyuki Nakahama, Viviany Teixeira Nascimento, Clive Nuttman, Paulo Eugenio Oliveira, Craig I Peter, Sachin Punekar, Nicole Rafferty, Alessandro Rapini, Zong Xin Ren, Claudia I Rodríguez-Flores, Liliana Rosero, Shoko Sakai, Marlies Sazima, Sandy Lynn Steenhuisen, Ching Wen Tan, Carolina Torres, Kristian Trøjelsgaard, Atushi Ushimaru, Milene Faria Vieira, Ana Pía Wiemer, Tadashi Yamashiro, Tarcila Nadia, Joel Queiroz, Zelma Quirino

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articlepeer-review

60 Citations (Scopus)


Background and Aims: Large clades of angiosperms are often characterized by diverse interactions with pollinators, but how these pollination systems are structured phylogenetically and biogeographically is still uncertain for most families. Apocynaceae is a clade of >5300 species with a worldwide distribution. A database representing >10 % of species in the family was used to explore the diversity of pollinators and evolutionary shifts in pollination systems across major clades and regions.

Methods: The database was compiled from published and unpublished reports. Plants were categorized into broad pollination systems and then subdivided to include bimodal systems. These were mapped against the five major divisions of the family, and against the smaller clades. Finally, pollination systems were mapped onto a phylogenetic reconstruction that included those species for which sequence data are available, and transition rates between pollination systems were calculated.

Key Results: Most Apocynaceae are insect pollinated with few records of bird pollination. Almost three-quarters of species are pollinated by a single higher taxon (e.g. flies or moths); 7 % have bimodal pollination systems, whilst the remaining approx. 20 % are insect generalists. The less phenotypically specialized flowers of the Rauvolfioids are pollinated by a more restricted set of pollinators than are more complex flowers within the Apocynoids + Periplocoideae + Secamonoideae + Asclepiadoideae (APSA) clade. Certain combinations of bimodal pollination systems are more common than others. Some pollination systems are missing from particular regions, whilst others are over-represented.

Conclusions: Within Apocynaceae, interactions with pollinators are highly structured both phylogenetically and biogeographically. Variation in transition rates between pollination systems suggest constraints on their evolution, whereas regional differences point to environmental effects such as filtering of certain pollinators from habitats. This is the most extensive analysis of its type so far attempted and gives important insights into the diversity and evolution of pollination systems in large clades.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)311-325
Number of pages15
JournalAnnals of Botany
Issue number2
Early online date7 Aug 2018
Publication statusPublished - 23 Jan 2019

User-Defined Keywords

  • Apocynaceae
  • Asclepiadaceae
  • bimodal pollination system
  • biogeography
  • fly pollination
  • generalization
  • mutualism
  • phylogeny
  • plant–pollinator interactions
  • pollination ecology
  • specialization
  • stapeliads


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