The Communication Anxiety Regulation Scale: Development and Initial Validation

Kaitlin Hanley White, Matt C. Howard, Bu Zhong, José A. Soto*, Christopher R. Perez, Elizabeth A. Lee, Nana A. Dawson-Andoh, Mark R. Minnick

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


A series of studies present the development and validation of the Communication Anxiety Regulation Scale (CARS), a self-report measure designed to assess the use of emotion regulation strategies to manage acute communication anxiety—in contrast to measures of general emotion regulation tendencies. Study 1 delineates the item derivation and selection process that yielded the final 12 CARS items. Results of an exploratory factor analysis supported the existence of four distinct subscales, each representing one of four anxiety regulation strategies (suppression, reappraisal, avoidance, and venting). Study 2 confirmed this factor structure and also examined correlations of the CARS with existing measures in an attempt to establish concurrent validity. Finally, Study 3 presents results of an item-sort task demonstrating the scale’s face validity and items’ substantive validity. Overall, findings provide preliminary support for the utility of the CARS as measure of communication anxiety regulation to be used by communication and psychology researchers.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)23-43
Number of pages21
JournalCommunication Quarterly
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2015
Externally publishedYes

Scopus Subject Areas

  • Communication

User-Defined Keywords

  • Communication Anxiety
  • Emotion Regulation
  • Measure
  • Self-Report Scale
  • Speech Anxiety


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