Religion in China is expected to stabilize and harmonize society. Beijing has not wanted to see Chinese Christians being outspoken in their faith and activities. This chapter addresses the conflicts between the Vatican and Beijing in the 1980s. After China opened to the world in 1979, the people could practice their religion in public as Beijing experimented with its policy toward religion. Yet while the decade began with optimism for greater cooperation between Rome and Beijing, it ended with the CCP’s open condemnation of the Vatican and the Pope. From Beijing’s perspective, the core problem that was aroused in the 1980s was who should control the Chinese Catholics, the Vatican or itself. This issue necessarily involved the identity, loyalty, and obedience of the Chinese Catholics.