Synchronous characterization of carbohydrates and ginsenosides yields deeper insights into the processing chemistry of ginseng

Shan Shan Zhou, Jun XU, Ming Kong, Ka Man Yip, Jin Di Xu, Hong Shen, Zhongzhen ZHAO, Song Lin Li*, Hubiao CHEN

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Carbohydrates and ginsenosides in ginseng are biologically interrelated. Their synchronous analysis is therefore essential in chemical research on ginseng to characterize its “holistic” quality. Here we investigated the processing chemistry of red ginseng (RG), a ginseng product processed by water-steaming, for which both carbohydrates and ginsenosides were qualitatively and quantitatively determined through multiple analytical techniques. Results revealed that the steam-processing not only qualitatively and quantitatively altered the ginsenosides but also affected the polymeric carbohydrates via changing their physiochemical parameters, i.e. water-solubility, molecular size, types and ratios of constituent monosaccharides. Potential mechanisms involved in the transformation of ginseng chemicals are proposed and discussed, including hydrolysis (deglycosylation, demalonylation, deacetylation), dehydration, polymerization, volatilization, reduction and the Maillard reaction. The study strengthens the research on the processing chemistry of RG, and therefore should be helpful for elucidating the scientific basis of RG preparation and application.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)59-70
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Volume145
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 25 Oct 2017

Scopus Subject Areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Pharmaceutical Science
  • Drug Discovery
  • Spectroscopy
  • Clinical Biochemistry

User-Defined Keywords

  • Carbohydrate
  • Ginsenoside
  • Processing chemistry
  • Red ginseng
  • Steaming liquid

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