Surface Sn(IV) Hydrolysis Improves Inorganic Sn-Pb Perovskite Solar Cells

Mingyu Hu, Yalan Zhang, Jue Gong, Hua Zhou, Xianzhen Huang, Mingzhen Liu, Yuanyuan Zhou*, Shihe Yang*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articlepeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)


Cesium tin–lead (Sn–Pb) perovskites are exceptional for their combined capabilities in unlocking ideal bandgaps for solar cells and mitigating the stability issue faced by their hybrid organic–inorganic counterparts. But the development of high-performance solar cells using these materials is retarded by their inherent high density of detrimental Sn(IV) defects. Herein, we demonstrate a sequential surface treatment method, which entails a Sn(II) halide treatment to displace the buried Sn(IV) ions underneath the film surface, followed by a H2O treatment to hydrolyze the displaced Sn(IV) ions. The surface treatment induces chemical and microstructural reconstructions that significantly improve the optoelectronic properties and stability of perovskites. As a result, a power conversion efficiency of 16.79% and a T90 stability of 958 h are achieved, topping all previously reported performance parameters for inorganic Sn–Pb PSCs. This achievement further shortens the performance gap between all-inorganic and hybrid organic–inorganic Sn–Pb PSCs with sub-1.4 eV bandgaps.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1035-1041
Number of pages7
JournalACS Energy Letters
Issue number2
Early online date20 Jan 2023
Publication statusPublished - 10 Feb 2023

Scopus Subject Areas

  • Chemistry (miscellaneous)
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Fuel Technology
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Materials Chemistry


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