Substitutes for Bear Bile for the Treatment of Liver Diseases: Research Progress and Future Perspective

Sha Li, Hor Yue Tan, Ning Wang, Ming Hong, Lei Li, Fan Cheung, Yibin Feng*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

40 Citations (Scopus)


Bear bile has been a well-known Chinese medicine for thousands of years. Because of the endangered species protection, the concept on substitutes for bear bile was proposed decades ago. Based on their chemical composition and pharmacologic actions, artificial bear bile, bile from other animals, synthetic compounds, and medicinal plants may be the promising candidates to replace bear bile for the similar therapeutic purpose. Accumulating research evidence has indicated that these potential substitutes for bear bile have displayed the same therapeutic effects as bear bile. However, stopping the use of bear bile is a challenging task. In this review, we extensively searched PubMed and CNKI for literatures, focusing on comparative studies between bear bile and its substitutes for the treatment of liver diseases. Recent research progress in potential substitutes for bear bile in the last decade is summarized, and a strategy for the use of substitutes for bear bile is discussed carefully.

Original languageEnglish
Article number4305074
Number of pages11
JournalEvidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Publication statusPublished - 21 Mar 2016

Scopus Subject Areas

  • Complementary and alternative medicine


Dive into the research topics of 'Substitutes for Bear Bile for the Treatment of Liver Diseases: Research Progress and Future Perspective'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this