A smart gold nanoparticle based aptasensor is developed for the sensing of this biomarker in a convenient and fast manner. A comprehensive study was performed to elucidate the driving force of DNA adsorption, different factors’ effects, such as gold nanoparticle size, DNA length, concentration, and working pH towards spermine sensing by using UV/Vis absorption spectroscopy and isothermal titration calorimetry. It was found that the developed aptasensor could detect spermine by two different sensing mechanisms simply by adjusting the DNA concentration without complicated procedures. Good performance in complicated matrices was proven by the satisfactory results obtained in the spike analysis of both artificial urine and clinical urine samples. Such a flexible and smart approach described here would provide a useful tool for the fast sensing of spermine and prostate cancer screening.
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