Students, Patients, Citizens, and Believersas "Customers": A Cross-National Exploratory Study

James G. Hutton, Vivienne S Y Leung, Angela K Y Mak, Richard J. Varey, Boonlert Watjatrakul

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


Even after 40 years of philosophical discussions about whether "customer" terminology is appropriate in the context of education, health care, religion, government, and other social institutions, virtually no research has been conducted to identify actual public attitudes on the subject. Thus, a large-scale, five-country study was conducted to examine the question: Should patients, students, news media readers/viewers/listeners, political constituents, and members of religious organizations be treated as "customers"? In addition to collecting and analyzing quantitative responses, the study explored the reasoning behind respondents' attitudes, provided benchmark data for future research, and highlighted critical implications for both public and private policy.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)41-70
Number of pages30
JournalJournal of Nonprofit and Public Sector Marketing
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2011

Scopus Subject Areas

  • Marketing

User-Defined Keywords

  • Consumer behavior
  • Marketing
  • Nonprofit organizations
  • Public policy
  • Social institutions


Dive into the research topics of 'Students, Patients, Citizens, and Believersas "Customers": A Cross-National Exploratory Study'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this