Structural characterization and immuno-modulating activities of a polysaccharide from Ganoderma sinense

Xiao Qiang Han, Ben Chung Lap Chan, Hua Yu, Yin Hua Yang, Shui Qing Hu, Chun Hay Ko, Cai Xia Dong, Chun Kwok Wong, Pang Chui Shaw, Kwok Pui Fung, Ping Chung Leung, Wendy W L HSIAO, Peng Fei Tu*, Simon Q B HAN

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articlepeer-review

45 Citations (Scopus)


A protein-bound polysaccharide (GSP-4) with a molecular weight of 8.3×105Da, was isolated from the water extract of the fruiting bodies of Ganoderma sinense. Chemical study revealed that this fraction was composed of mannose, glucose and galactose in the molar ratio of 4.7:27.1:1.0, with the sugar residues of t-, 1,3-, 1,4-, 1,6-, 1,3,4- and 1,3,6-linked Glcp, t-linked Galp, and 1,6-linked Manp. The immnomodulatory effects of GSP-4 were assessed using human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and murine monocyte/macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. We found that GSP-4 could significantly stimulate the production of the immunomodulatory markers tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-12, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in PBMCs. This observation was further substantiated in RAW 264.7 cells, as indicated by the increase of nitric oxide (NO), TNF-α and IL-6 production. GSP-4 also enhanced the expression of inducible NO synthase mRNA in dose-dependent manner. Our current finding gives the first piece of evidence to support that GSP-4 possesses some promising immunomodulating effects and it could be a potential candidate to be further used in related cancer immunotherapy.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)597-603
Number of pages7
JournalInternational Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2012

Scopus Subject Areas

  • Structural Biology
  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Economics and Econometrics
  • Energy(all)

User-Defined Keywords

  • Ganoderma sinense
  • Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells
  • Immunological activities
  • Macrophages
  • Polysaccharide


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