Hematotoxicity has been becoming a serious but overlooked toxicity in drug discovery. However, only a few in silico models have been reported for the prediction of hematotoxicity. In this study, we constructed a high-quality dataset comprising 759 hematotoxic compounds and 1623 nonhematotoxic compounds and then established a series of classification models based on a combination of seven machine learning (ML) algorithms and nine molecular representations. The results based on two data partitioning strategies and applicability domain (AD) analysis illustrate that the best prediction model based on Attentive FP yielded a balanced accuracy (BA) of 72.6%, an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) value of 76.8% for the validation set, and a BA of 69.2%, an AUC of 75.9% for the test set. In addition, compared with existing filtering rules and models, our model achieved the highest BA value of 67.5% for the external validation set. Additionally, the shapley additive explanation (SHAP) and atom heatmap approaches were utilized to discover the important features and structural fragments related to hematotoxicity, which could offer helpful tips to detect undesired positive substances. Furthermore, matched molecular pair analysis (MMPA) and representative substructure derivation technique were employed to further characterize and investigate the transformation principles and distinctive structural features of hematotoxic chemicals. We believe that the novel graph-based deep learning algorithms and insightful interpretation presented in this study can be used as a trustworthy and effective tool to assess hematotoxicity in the development of new drugs.
Scopus Subject Areas
- Chemical Engineering(all)
- Computer Science Applications
- Library and Information Sciences