Spatiotemporal variability in the reproductive success of the continually flowering shrub Dillenia suffruticosa in Borneo

Yuji Tokumoto*, Shoko Sakai, Michinari Matsushita, Tatsuhiro Ohkubo, Michiko Nakagawa

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Continually flowering plants bloom continuously throughout the year, as often seen in plants distributed along the roadsides or in the understory layers in Southeast Asia's tropical rain forests. Dillenia suffruticosa (Griff. ex Hook. f. & Thomson) Martelli (Dilleniaceae) is one such continually flowering shrub that flowers during periods of community-wide mass flowering, general flowering (GF), and non-GF. During irregularly occurring GF periods, when species of all forest layers flower synchronously for several months, some pollinators migrate to the canopy layer, where GF promotes the pollination success of participating plants. Continually flowering plants share the available pollinator community with GF plants, and the reproductive success of continually flowering plants may be affected during the GF period. To assess the effects of GF on the reproductive success of a diverse range of continually flowering plants, we examined the differences in pollinator density and reproductive success between GF and non-GF periods in D. suffruticosa at four different research sites. Although the seed set differed among the four research sites, pollinator density and fruit set did not differ between GF and non-GF periods or research sites. Our results suggest that the reproductive success of D. suffruticosa was maintained at an approximately constant level, regardless of the flowering phenology of the canopy layer or other vegetation components.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)583-590
Number of pages8
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2014

User-Defined Keywords

  • buzz pollination by bees
  • flowering phenology
  • plant reproduction
  • slash-and-burn agriculture
  • syncarpy


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