To examine the impacts of urbanization and industrialization on the coastal environment, and assess the effectiveness of control measures on the contamination by chlorinated paraffins (CPs) in East Asia, surface and core sediments were sampled from the urbanized coastal zones in China and Japan (i.e., Pearl River Delta (PRD), Hong Kong waters and Tokyo Bay) and analyzed for short-chain (SCCPs) and medium-chain CPs (MCCPs). Much higher concentrations of CPs were found in the industrialized PRD than in adjacent Hong Kong waters. Significant correlation between CP concentration and population density in the coastal district of Hong Kong was observed (r2 = 0.72 for SCCPs and 0.55 for MCCPs, p < 0.05), highlighting the effect of urbanization. By contrast, a relatively lower pollution level of CPs was detected in Tokyo Bay. More long-chain groups within SCCPs in the PRD than in Hong Kong waters and Tokyo Bay implied the effect of industrialization. Comparison of temporal trends between Hong Kong outer harbor with Tokyo Bay shows the striking difference in historical deposition of CPs under different regulatory situations in China and Japan. For the first time, the declining CP concentrations in Tokyo Bay, Japan, attest to the effectiveness of emissions controls.
Scopus Subject Areas
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis
- Hong Kong waters
- Medium chain chlorinated paraffins
- Short chain chlorinated paraffins
- Spatiotemporal trends
- Tokyo Bay