Space-Air-Ground Integrated Networks: Spherical Stochastic Geometry-Based Uplink Connectivity Analysis

Yalin Liu*, Hong Ning Dai, Qubeijian Wang, Om Jee Pandey, Yaru Fu, Ning Zhang, Dusit Niyato, Chi Chung Lee

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


By integrating the merits of aerial, terrestrial, and satellite communications, the space-air-ground integrated network (SAGIN) is an emerging solution that can provide massive access, seamless coverage, and reliable transmissions for global-range applications. In SAGINs, the uplink connectivity from ground users (GUs) to the satellite is essential because it ensures global-range data collections and interactions, thereby paving the technical foundation for practical implementations of SAGINs. In this article, we aim to establish an accurate analytical model for the uplink connectivity of SAGINs in consideration of the global distributions of both GUs and aerial vehicles (AVs). Particularly, we investigate the uplink path connectivity of SAGINs, which refers to the probability of establishing the end-to-end path from GUs to the satellite with or without AV relays. However, such an investigation on SAGINs is challenging because all GUs and AVs are approximately distributed on a spherical surface (instead of the horizontal surface), resulting in the complexity of network modeling. To address this challenge, this paper presents a new analytical approach based on spherical stochastic geometry. Based on this approach, we derive the analytical expression of the path connectivity in SAGINs. Extensive simulations confirm the accuracy of the analytical model.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1387-1402
Number of pages16
JournalIEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 9 May 2024

Scopus Subject Areas

  • Computer Networks and Communications
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

User-Defined Keywords

  • Aerial vehicles (AVs)
  • connectivity analysis
  • space-air-ground integrated networks (SAGINs)
  • spherical stochastic geometry


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