Social developments and school music education: The struggles in Hong Kong

Wai Chung HO*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


This paper explores two current issues in the educational policies and practices of Hong Kong that have been shaped by the emergence of the nation-state and the return of Hong Kong's sovereignty from the UK to the People's Republic of China on 1 July 1997. Since this time there have been two great challenges facing music education. The first concerns how to incorporate diverse cultures, including Chinese music, into a Western-orientated music curriculum; and the second is to find a way to cultivate national identity and democracy through music education. The data presented here were collected via in-depth, semi-structured individual interviews with music teachers, school heads and assistant school heads across 40 primary and secondary schools between 2006 and 2007. The findings can be explained by referring to the shortcomings of multicultural education and the underdevelopment of democracy in Hong Kong's education system.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)179-193
Number of pages15
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2009

Scopus Subject Areas

  • Education
  • Social Sciences (miscellaneous)
  • Linguistics and Language

User-Defined Keywords

  • Cultural pluralism
  • Democracy
  • Hong Kong
  • National identity
  • School music education
  • Social developments


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