Small GTPases are known to have pivotal roles in intracellular trafficking, and several members of the small GTPases superfamily such as Rab10 [1,2•], Rab11 [3–5], Rab34 [6•,7], Rab8 [3,8], Rab23 [9–12], RSG1 [13–15], Arl13b [16–22], and Arl6 [22,23] were recently reported to mediate primary cilia function and/or Hh signalling. Although these functions are implicated in diseases such as ciliopathies, the molecular basis underlying how these small GTPases mediate primary cilia-dependent Hh signalling and pathogenesis of ciliopathies warrants further investigations. Notably, Rab23 and Arl13b have been implicated in ciliopathy-associated human diseases and could regulate Hh signalling cascade in multifaceted manners. This review thus specifically discuss the roles of Rab23 and Arl13b in primary cilia of mammalian systems, their cilia-dependent and cilia-independent modulation of hedgehog signalling pathways and their implications in Carpenter Syndrome and Joubert Syndrome respectively.
Scopus Subject Areas
- Developmental Biology