Seasonal variations and inhalation risk assessment of short-chain chlorinated paraffins in PM2.5 of Jinan, China

Huijuan Li*, Jingkun Li, Huizhi Li, Hao Yu, Lingxiao Yang, Xiangfeng Chen, Zongwei CAI

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articlepeer-review

17 Citations (Scopus)


Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) were added to the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) at the eighth meeting of the conference of the parties in 2017. As a consequence, increasing environmental attention and international regulation on SCCPs is expected in the future. Inhalation uptake of particulate matter (PM) was an important exposure pathway for POPs into the human body. In the present study, a total of eighty PM2.5 samples were collected in the four seasons of the year at an urban site (Shandong University, Jinan) in Shandong province to investigate the seasonal changes of SCCPs and their inhalation exposure risks to human health. The concentrations of SCCPs ranged from 9.80 to 105 ng m−3, with the mean value of 38.7 ng m−3. The highest concentrations of SCCPs were detected in winter, while the lowest concentrations were in summer. SCCPs concentrations were positively correlated with the mass concentrations of PM2.5 (r = 0.629, p < 0.01), and negatively correlated with the ambient temperature (r = −0.447, p < 0.01). The SCCPs congeners with 10 carbon atoms (C10 congeners) and 7 chlorine numbers (Cl7 congeners) were the predominant congeners, which contributed 35% and 37% of the total SCCPs contamination, respectively. The average inhalation exposure was estimated to be 1.75 × 10−4 mg kg−1 day−1 for adults, which is much lower than the “no observed adverse effect level” (NOAEL) of 100 mg kg−1 day−1 given by European risk assessment for SCCPs. The exposure of SCCPs via inhalation poses no significant risk for human health in Jinan and the results of present study could provide valuable information on the inhalation exposure risk assessments of SCCPs in the industrial cities.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)325-330
Number of pages6
JournalEnvironmental Pollution
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2019

Scopus Subject Areas

  • Toxicology
  • Pollution
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

User-Defined Keywords

  • Inhalation risk assessment
  • PM
  • Seasonal variation
  • Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs)


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