Saliva 1,5-anhydroglucitol is associated with early-phase insulin secretion in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes

Lingwen Ying, Chaohui Jian, Xiaojing Ma*, Kun Ge, Wei Zhu, Yufei Wang, Aihua Zhao, Jian Zhou, Wei Jia, Yuqian Bao*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Introduction: Saliva collection is a non-invasive test and is convenient. 1,5-anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG) is a new indicator reflecting short-term blood glucose levels. This study aimed to explore the relationship between saliva 1,5-AG and insulin secretion function and insulin sensitivity.

Research design and methods: Adult patients with type 2 diabetes who were hospitalized were enrolled. Based on blood glucose and C-peptide, homeostasis model assessment 2 for β cell secretion function, C-peptidogenic index (CGI), △2-hour C-peptide (2hCP)/△2-hour postprandial glucose (2hPG), ratio of 0-30 min area under the curve for C-peptide and area under the curve for glucose (AUCCP30/AUCPG30), and AUC2hCP/AUC2hPG were calculated to evaluate insulin secretion function, while indicators such as homeostasis model assessment 2 for insulin resistance were used to assess insulin sensitivity.

Results: We included 284 subjects (178 men and 106 women) with type 2 diabetes aged 20-70 years. The saliva 1,5-AG level was 0.133 (0.089-0.204) µg/mL. Spearman's correlation analysis revealed a significantly negative correlation between saliva 1,5-AG and 0, 30, and 120 min blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin A1c, and glycated albumin (all p<0.05), and a significantly positive association between saliva 1,5-AG and CGI (r=0.171, p=0.004) and AUC CP30 /AUC PG30 (r=0.174, p=0.003). The above correlations still existed after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, and diabetes duration. In multiple linear regression, saliva 1,5-AG was an independent factor of CGI (standardized β=0.135, p=0.015) and AUC CP30 /AUC PG30 (standardized β=0.110, p=0.020).

Conclusions: Saliva 1,5-AG was related to CGI and AUCCP30/AUCPG30 in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Trial registration number: ChiCTR-SOC-17011356.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere002199
Number of pages7
JournalBMJ Open Diabetes Research and Care
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 24 Jun 2021

User-Defined Keywords

  • Adult
  • China
  • Deoxyglucose
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis
  • Female
  • Glucose Tolerance Test
  • Humans
  • Insulin/metabolism
  • Insulin Secretion
  • Male
  • Saliva/metabolism


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