Roles of Cytokines in Alzheimer’s Disease

Zilin Chen, Yekkuni L. Balachandran, Wai Po Chong*, Kannie W. Y. Chan*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


The neuroimmune system is a collection of immune cells, cytokines, and the glymphatic system that plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis and progression of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Of particular focus are cytokines, a group of immune signaling molecules that facilitate communication among immune cells and contribute to inflammation in AD. Extensive research has shown that the dysregulated secretion of certain cytokines (IL-1β, IL-17, IL-12, IL-23, IL-6, and TNF-α) promotes neuroinflammation and exacerbates neuronal damage in AD. However, anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-2, IL-3, IL-33, and IL-35) are also secreted during AD onset and progression, thereby preventing neuroinflammation. This review summarizes the involvement of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in AD pathology and discusses their therapeutic potential.
Original languageEnglish
Article number5803
JournalInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2024

User-Defined Keywords

  • Alzheimer’s disease
  • cytokine
  • neuroimmune system
  • pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines

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