Reversible watermarking by modulation and security enhancement

Hao Tian Wu*, Yiu Ming CHEUNG

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articlepeer-review

42 Citations (Scopus)


This paper presents a watermarking algorithm that is suitable for the data represented in floating- or fixed-point numbers. By keeping the modulation information, every value in the original object can be restored with the smallest error. For the sake of exact recovery, the redundancy in the watermarked object should be exploited to save the recovery information. We analyze the security of the algorithm and enhance it by adding a pseudorandom (PR) sequence to the watermarked object. The algorithm can be applied in the measurement to embed some useful information in a distortion-free way. We implement it on the Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) models, and the experimental results show its efficacy.

Original languageEnglish
Article number5208305
Pages (from-to)221-228
Number of pages8
JournalIEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2010

Scopus Subject Areas

  • Instrumentation
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

User-Defined Keywords

  • 3-d geometry
  • Authentication
  • Modulation
  • Reversible watermarking
  • Security


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