Reliability and Validity of a Novel Measure of Nonviolent Communication Behaviors

Cherry T.Y. Cheung, Clement Man-Him Cheng, Stanley Kam Ki Lam, Henry Wai-Hang Ling, Kim Ling Lau, Suet Lin Hung, Hong Wang Fung*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Purpose: Nonviolent communication (NVC) has been increasingly recognized as a potentially beneficial approach that could promote empathy, resolve conflicts, and improve psychosocial well-being. No validated measure is available to assess or quantify NVC-specific characteristics or behaviors. This paper describes the development and pilot psychometric evaluation of a self-report measure for assessing behaviors characteristic of NVC (e.g., awareness of feelings, honest self-expression).

Method: We analyzed data in an online convenience sample of young adults (N = 205).

Results: The 7-item Nonviolent Communication Behaviors Scale (NVCBS) was found to have satisfactory internal consistency (α = 0.789 to 0.810), good test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.781) and a single-factor structure. The NVCBS was also positively correlated with empathy while negatively correlated with negative beliefs about emotions, demonstrating its construct validity.

Discussion: The study provides a reliable and valid measure of NVC behaviors which can facilitate future studies on NVC. Directions for future research are discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)790-797
Number of pages8
JournalResearch on Social Work Practice
Issue number7
Early online date23 Sept 2022
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2023

Scopus Subject Areas

  • Social Sciences(all)
  • General
  • Psychology(all)
  • Social Sciences (miscellaneous)
  • Sociology and Political Science

User-Defined Keywords

  • empathy
  • mental health
  • nonviolent communication (NVC)
  • reliability
  • validation


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