Reliability and Validity of a Novel Measure of Nonviolent Communication Behaviors

Cherry T.Y. Cheung, Clement Man-Him Cheng, Stanley Kam Ki Lam, Henry Wai-Hang Ling, Kim Ling Lau, Suet Lin Hung, Hong Wang Fung*

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articlepeer-review

    2 Citations (Scopus)


    Purpose: Nonviolent communication (NVC) has been increasingly recognized as a potentially beneficial approach that could promote empathy, resolve conflicts, and improve psychosocial well-being. No validated measure is available to assess or quantify NVC-specific characteristics or behaviors. This paper describes the development and pilot psychometric evaluation of a self-report measure for assessing behaviors characteristic of NVC (e.g., awareness of feelings, honest self-expression).

    Method: We analyzed data in an online convenience sample of young adults (N = 205).

    Results: The 7-item Nonviolent Communication Behaviors Scale (NVCBS) was found to have satisfactory internal consistency (α = 0.789 to 0.810), good test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.781) and a single-factor structure. The NVCBS was also positively correlated with empathy while negatively correlated with negative beliefs about emotions, demonstrating its construct validity.

    Discussion: The study provides a reliable and valid measure of NVC behaviors which can facilitate future studies on NVC. Directions for future research are discussed.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)790-797
    Number of pages8
    JournalResearch on Social Work Practice
    Issue number7
    Early online date23 Sept 2022
    Publication statusPublished - Oct 2023

    Scopus Subject Areas

    • Social Sciences(all)
    • General
    • Psychology(all)
    • Social Sciences (miscellaneous)
    • Sociology and Political Science

    User-Defined Keywords

    • empathy
    • mental health
    • nonviolent communication (NVC)
    • reliability
    • validation


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