Recent Developments in Prosthesis Sensors, Texture Recognition, and Sensory Stimulation for Upper Limb Prostheses

Andrew Masteller, Sriramana Sankar, Han Biehn Kim, Keqin Ding, Xiaogang Liu*, Angelo Homayoun All*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

17 Citations (Scopus)


Current developments being made in upper limb prostheses are focused on replacing lost sensory information to the amputees. Providing sensory stimulation from the prosthesis can directly improve control over the prosthetic and provide a sense of body ownership. The focus of this review article is on recent developments while including foundational knowledge for some of the critical concepts in neural prostheses. Reported concepts follow the flow of information from sensors to signal processing, with emphasis on texture recognition, and then to sensory stimulation strategies that reestablish the lost sensory feedback loop. Prosthetic sensors are used to detect the physical environment, converting pressure, force, and position into electrical signals. The electrical signals can then be processed in an effort to identify the surrounding environment using distinctive characteristics such as stiffness and texture. In order for the amputee to use this information in a natural manner, there must be real-time sensory stimulation, perception, and motor control of the prosthesis. Although truly complete sensory replacement has not yet been realized, some basic percepts can be partially restored, allowing progress towards a more realistic prosthesis with natural sensations.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)57-74
Number of pages18
JournalAnnals of Biomedical Engineering
Issue number1
Early online date2 Nov 2020
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2021

Scopus Subject Areas

  • Biomedical Engineering

User-Defined Keywords

  • Nerve electrodes
  • Sensory feedback
  • Biomimetic
  • Noninvasive stimulation
  • Embodiment
  • Phantom limb stimulation


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