Psychometric validation of the toronto mindfulness scale - Trait version in Chinese college students

Pak-Kwong CHUNG*, Chunqing ZHANG

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articlepeer-review

    4 Citations (Scopus)
    52 Downloads (Pure)


    The Toronto Mindfulness Scale (TMS; Lau et al., 2006) has been widely used to assess the state mindfulness of participants after practicing mindfulness. Recently, a trait version of the Toronto Mindfulness Scale was developed and initially validated (TMS-T; Davis et al., 2009). We further examined the psychometric properties of TMS-T using three hundred and sixty-eight Chinese college students (233 females and 135 males) from a public university in Hong Kong. We found that factor analyses failed to support the existence of two-dimensional structure of the Chinese version of the TMS-T (C-TMS-T). The model fit indices indicated a marginal model fit, and the concurrent and convergent validities of the C-TMS-T were not confirmed. The moderate item-to-subscale fit of the decentering subscale indicated that its structural validity was not satisfactory. In addition, the internal consistency coefficient of the decentering subscale using composite reliability (p =.61) was under the acceptable level. Based on the results, we concluded that the application of the C-TMS-T to the Chinese population is premature. Further validation of the C-TMS-T using another sample of participants is recommended, in particular, individuals with meditation experiences.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)726-739
    Number of pages14
    JournalEurope's Journal of Psychology
    Issue number4
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2014

    Scopus Subject Areas

    • Psychology(all)

    User-Defined Keywords

    • Meditation
    • Mindfulness
    • Reliability
    • Toronto mindfulness scale
    • Validity


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