Primary music teachers’ efficacy in Hong Kong’s inclusive classrooms

Marina Wai Yee Wong*, Edmund Sze Shing Chan, Maria Pik Yuk Chik

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)
43 Downloads (Pure)


This study analyses responses (n = 309, across 94 schools) to the General Self-Efficacy Scale (Zhang and Schwarzer [1995]. “Measuring Optimistic Self-Beliefs: A Chinese Adaptation of the General Self-Efficacy Scale.” Psychologia: An International Journal of Psychology in the Orient 38 (3): 174–181) from Hong Kong primary teachers of inclusive music classes. Analysis of these results sheds light on the impact that contextual reforms have on these non-core subject music teachers’ practice. Respondents’ perceived self-efficacy is moderate – characterised as a see-saw relationship between their personal and external domains. A possible behavioural intervention suggests professional-sharing being further enriched were current Education Bureau’s in-service SEN courses to be inclusive of all primary school subjects, including music. Specific factors that underpin these respondents ‘moderate’ self-efficacy are identified as forming two clusters, human resource management and stress, with possible behavioural interventions for these being outlined.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)517-528
Number of pages12
JournalMusic Education Research
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 20 Oct 2019

Scopus Subject Areas

  • Education
  • Music

User-Defined Keywords

  • Hong Kong
  • inclusive education
  • Primary music teachers
  • self-efficacy


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