The presence of benzotriazoles and benzothiazoles (BTs) in maternal urine and amniotic fluid indicated the widespread fetal exposure to the contaminants. We investigated the associations of prenatal BTs exposure with fetal and birth size and explored the window of susceptibility. Participants consisted of 856 mother-infant pairs drawn from a prospective birth cohort between 2014 and 2015 in Wuhan, China. Prenatal BTs exposure were measured in multiple urine samples collected across three trimesters. We observed positive associations between prenatal exposure to specific BTs (e.g., 1-H-benzotriazole, 1-hydroxy-benzotriazole and 2-amino-benzothiazole) and femur length (FL) and birth length z-scores among girls. In boys, a 2-fold increase of averaged concentration of urinary benzothiazole (BTH) was associated with decrement in FL (β = -0.068, p < 0.001) and birth length (β = -0.055, p = 0.005) z-scores. Further analysis indicated that the negative associations between urinary concentrations of BTH and birth length z-score among boys were observed at exposure measurement in 25–35 gestational weeks. This study reported the associations between prenatal exposure to BTs and fetal and birth size, suggests the associations maybe in a sex-specific manner and the window of exposure may influence susceptibility. These findings require replication in future research.
Scopus Subject Areas
- Environmental Engineering
- Environmental Chemistry
- Waste Management and Disposal
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis
- Fetal and birth size