Main conclusion: Serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins participate in RNA processing by interacting with precursor mRNAs or other splicing factors to maintain plant growth and stress responses.
Abstract: Alternative splicing is an important mechanism involved in mRNA processing and regulation of gene expression at the posttranscriptional level, which is the main reason for the diversity of genes and proteins. The process of alternative splicing requires the participation of many specific splicing factors. The SR protein family is a splicing factor in eukaryotes. The vast majority of SR proteins’ existence is an essential survival factor. Through its RS domain and other unique domains, SR proteins can interact with specific sequences of precursor mRNA or other splicing factors and cooperate to complete the correct selection of splicing sites or promote the formation of spliceosomes. They play essential roles in the composition and alternative splicing of precursor mRNAs, providing pivotal functions to maintain growth and stress responses in animals and plants. Although SR proteins have been identified in plants for three decades, their evolutionary trajectory, molecular function, and regulatory network remain largely unknown compared to their animal counterparts. This article reviews the current understanding of this gene family in eukaryotes and proposes potential key research priorities for future functional studies.
Scopus Subject Areas
- Plant Science
- Molecular mechanism
- Pre-mRNA splicing
- RNA binding
- Serine arginine-rich (SR) proteins
- Splicing factor