Persistence and Psychological Predictors of ICD-11 Complex PTSD: A Six-Month Longitudinal Study in Hong Kong

Stanley Kam Ki Lam, Albe Sin Ying Ng, Chengrui Rachel Zhou, Suet Lin Hung*, Hong Wang Fung*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Recent studies showed that the ICD-11 C-PTSD is associated with considerable individual and social consequences. This study focused on the persistence and psychological predictors of C-PTSD. We analyzed longitudinal survey data from a sample of Hong Kong adults (N = 230) with an interval of approximately six months. Participants completed standardized self-report measures of C-PTSD and various psychological factors (including self-criticism, self-compassion, ruminative response, event centrality, and experiential avoidance) at both timepoints. Over 80% of participants with probable C-PTSD at baseline remained to meet the criteria for PTSD/C-PTSD at follow-up, while over 50% of participants with probable PTSD at baseline remitted at follow-up. Participants with probable C-PTSD were characterized by greater use of mental health services at both timepoints. Additionally, hierarchical multiple regression showed that, among a variety of psychological factors, experiential avoidance was the only significant predictor of PTSD (β = 0.271, p = .001) and disturbances in self-organization (DSO) (β = 0.200, p = .011) symptoms, after controlling for baseline symptom severity and treatment usage. This study shows that C-PTSD persists over time and its symptoms are predicted by experiential avoidance. More efforts are needed to prevent and address C-PTSD in the community. We also offer insights into the management of trauma-related disorders.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-21
Number of pages21
JournalJournal of Loss and Trauma
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 18 Oct 2023

Scopus Subject Areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Social Psychology
  • Psychiatric Mental Health
  • Social Sciences (miscellaneous)

User-Defined Keywords

  • Complex post-traumatic stress disorder (complex PTSD)
  • betrayal trauma
  • psychological factors
  • public mental health


Dive into the research topics of 'Persistence and Psychological Predictors of ICD-11 Complex PTSD: A Six-Month Longitudinal Study in Hong Kong'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this