Outbred genome sequencing and CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing in butterflies

Xueyan Li, Dingding Fan, Wei Zhang, Guichun Liu, Lu Zhang, Li Zhao, Xiaodong Fang, Lei Chen, Yang Dong, Yuan Chen, Yun Ding, Ruoping Zhao, Mingji Feng, Yabing Zhu, Yue Feng, Xuanting Jiang, Deying Zhu, Hui Xiang, Xikan Feng, Shuaicheng LiJun Wang, Guojie Zhang, Marcus.R. Kronforst*, Wen Wang*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articlepeer-review

140 Citations (Scopus)


Butterflies are exceptionally diverse but their potential as an experimental system has been limited by the difficulty of deciphering heterozygous genomes and a lack of genetic manipulation technology. Here we use a hybrid assembly approach to construct high-quality reference genomes for Papilio xuthus (contig and scaffold N50: 492 kb, 3.4 Mb) and Papilio machaon (contig and scaffold N50: 81 kb, 1.15 Mb), highly heterozygous species that differ in host plant affiliations, and adult and larval colour patterns. Integrating comparative genomics and analyses of gene expression yields multiple insights into butterfly evolution, including potential roles of specific genes in recent diversification. To functionally test gene function, we develop an efficient (up to 92.5%) CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing method that yields obvious phenotypes with three genes, Abdominal-B, ebony and frizzled. Our results provide valuable genomic and technological resources for butterflies and unlock their potential as a genetic model system.
Original languageEnglish
Article number8212
Number of pages10
JournalNature Communications
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 10 Sept 2015


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