Context: It is important to understand how marine invertebrates may be affected by tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP), as an organophosphorus flame retardant. Aim: The present research verified the hypothesis that TDCIPP would adversely affect the growth, development and reproduction of Crepidula onyx (phylum Mollusca) and Tigriopus japonicus (phylum Arthropoda). Methods: Effects of chronic exposure for the whole life cycle were examined at two concentrations of TDCIPP chosen on the basis of results from preliminary range-finding test. Key results: Exposure to 1 and 10 μg L-1 of TDCIPP significantly reduced larval and juvenile survival rate and shell length in C. onyx. TDCIPP caused adverse reproductive effects, including abnormal embryonic development, which led to non-viable broods and the malformation of larvae. Exposure to TDCIPP resulted in a 100-fold increase in incidence rate of abnormal larva formation. In T. japonicus, exposure to TDCIPP (10 μg L-1) resulted in non-viable broods and a significant reduction in the number of eggs and number of nauplii. Conclusions: Larval survival, larval growth, fecundity, and embryonic development were identified as the TDCIPP-Affected ecological endpoints in the marine invertebrate C. onyx and T. japonicus. Implications: From a management perspective, these results can help us assess the ecological risk posed by TDCIPP.
Scopus Subject Areas
- Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
- Aquatic Science
- developmental toxicity
- marine invertebrate
- organophosphate-based flame retardant
- reproductive toxicity