Organophosphate-based flame retardant (tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate) reduces fecundity and impairs embryonic development in marine invertebrates

Jill Man Ying Chiu*, Yuk Wa Lee, Kelly Su

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articlepeer-review


Context: It is important to understand how marine invertebrates may be affected by tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP), as an organophosphorus flame retardant. Aim: The present research verified the hypothesis that TDCIPP would adversely affect the growth, development and reproduction of Crepidula onyx (phylum Mollusca) and Tigriopus japonicus (phylum Arthropoda). Methods: Effects of chronic exposure for the whole life cycle were examined at two concentrations of TDCIPP chosen on the basis of results from preliminary range-finding test. Key results: Exposure to 1 and 10 μg L-1 of TDCIPP significantly reduced larval and juvenile survival rate and shell length in C. onyx. TDCIPP caused adverse reproductive effects, including abnormal embryonic development, which led to non-viable broods and the malformation of larvae. Exposure to TDCIPP resulted in a 100-fold increase in incidence rate of abnormal larva formation. In T. japonicus, exposure to TDCIPP (10 μg L-1) resulted in non-viable broods and a significant reduction in the number of eggs and number of nauplii. Conclusions: Larval survival, larval growth, fecundity, and embryonic development were identified as the TDCIPP-Affected ecological endpoints in the marine invertebrate C. onyx and T. japonicus. Implications: From a management perspective, these results can help us assess the ecological risk posed by TDCIPP.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1056-1063
Number of pages8
JournalMarine and Freshwater Research
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 4 Jul 2022

Scopus Subject Areas

  • Oceanography
  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Aquatic Science
  • Ecology

User-Defined Keywords

  • copepod
  • developmental toxicity
  • gastropod
  • larva
  • marine invertebrate
  • organophosphate-based flame retardant
  • reproductive toxicity


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