Optimisation of XAD extraction methodology for the assessment of biodegradation potential of 14C-phenanthrene in soil

Bilqees M. Adedigba, Ogbonnaya Uchenna OGBONNAYA, Gabriela M. Vázquez-Cuevas, Kirk T. Semple*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


This study investigated the use of a hydrophobic resin, amberlite XAD, as a tool for assessing the biodegradation potential of 14C-phenanthrene in soil. The method was optimised in terms of soil/XAD ratio, shaking, extraction time and eluting solvent. The most effective method was then tested on selected XADs, and the performance compared with cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) and dichloromethane (DCM) extractions suitability to predict phenanthrene biodegradation in soil over 100 d. Results showed that the optimum conditions for the XAD extraction technique are a 2:1 soil/XAD ratio, 100 rpm mixing for 22 h and elution using a DCM:methanol solution (1:1). Mineralisation of 14C-phenanthrene was accurately predicted by HP-β-CD (r2=0.990, slope = 0.953, intercept = 1.374) and XAD-4 extractions (r2=0.989, slope = 0.820, intercept = 6.567), while DCM overestimated the bioaccessibility of 14C-phenanthrene (r2=0.999, slope = 1.328, intercept =−49.507). This investigation showed that XAD extraction can be considered a suitable non-exhaustive technique for estimating biodegradability of phenanthrene in soil.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)140-150
Number of pages11
JournalEnvironmental Technology and Innovation
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2018

Scopus Subject Areas

  • Environmental Science(all)
  • Soil Science
  • Plant Science

User-Defined Keywords

  • Bioaccessibility
  • HP-β-CD
  • Hydrophobic resins
  • XAD


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