Older adult patient preferences for the content and format of prescription medication labels – A best-worst scaling and discrete choice experiment study

Rahul Malhotra*, Sumithra Devi Suppiah, Yi Wen Tan, Pildoo Sung, Sarah Siew Cheng Tay, Ngiap Chuan Tan, Gerald Choon Huat Koh, Alexandre Chan, Lita Sui Tjien Chew, Semra Ozdemir, PROMISE Study Group, Csilla Weninger, Esther Siew Joo Bek, Imel Tang, John Carson Allen, Juliana Bte Johari, Kuan Cheong Chan, Régis Vaillancourt, Ting Yee Lee, Valerie Shu Ying TanWee Ping Ang, Wern Ee Tang

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Patient preferences for the content and format of prescription medication labels (PMLs, i.e., sticker labels placed on medication bottles/packets at dispensing) have been extensively studied. However, accommodating all preferences on PMLs is impractical due to space limitations. Understanding how patients prioritise the content and format attributes of PMLs can inform improvements while working within PML space constraints. Objectives: We aimed to (1) identify a ranking of medication-related content attributes to be prioritised on PMLs using best-worst scaling (BWS), and (2) determine the relative importance of format attributes when incorporated onto PMLs using discrete choice experiment (DCE), from the perspective of older adult patients in Singapore. Methods: Attributes were informed by our prior qualitative study and PML best practice guidelines. For the BWS component, the assessed content attributes were indication, precautions, interaction or paired medicines, food instructions, side effects, expiry date, and missed dose action, all of which are currently not legally mandated on PMLs in Singapore. A BWS object case was used to rank the content attributes. For the DCE component, in a series of questions, participants were asked to choose between two PML options each time, that varied in the presentation of dosage-frequency instructions, font size, presentation of dosage, presentation of precautions, and font colour of precautions. A mixed logit model estimated the relative utilities of format attribute levels, enabling the calculation of importance scores of the format attributes. Results: The study recruited 280 participants (mean age: 68.8 ± 5.4 years). The three most-preferred content attributes were indication, precautions and interaction or paired medicines. The top three format preferences were tabular style presentation of dosage-frequency instructions, large font size and precautions in red colour. Conclusions: Healthcare institutions should consider improving their PMLs based on the leading content and format preferences voiced by older adult patients. The methodology adopted in the study can also be used for aligning the content and format of other patient education materials with patient preferences.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1455-1464
Number of pages10
JournalResearch in Social and Administrative Pharmacy
Volume19
Issue number11
Early online date20 Jul 2023
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2023

Scopus Subject Areas

  • Pharmacy
  • Pharmaceutical Science

User-Defined Keywords

  • Best-worst scaling
  • Discrete choice experiment
  • Patient preference
  • Pharmacy practice
  • Prescription medication labels

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