Widespread human exposure and associated adverse health effects led to regulations on the usage of bisphenol A (BPA). Several bisphenol analogues (BPs) have been introduced as BPA alternatives in various applications. However, these BPs have been shown to exhibit similar or even stronger endocrine-disrupting activities compared with that of BPA. Currently, information on the human exposure to BPA alternatives remains limited. In this study, nine BPs were quantified in 81 pairs of plasma and red blood cell (RBC) samples from Chinese participants. In human plasma, the predominant BPs was BPA, bisphenol S (BPS), and bisphenol AF (BPAF), with the mean concentrations of 0.40, 0.15, and 0.073 ng/mL, respectively. BPA (accounting for 63% of total BPs) and BPS (18%) were the major BPs in the RBC fraction. Mass fractions in plasma (Fp) were found to be highest for BPS (mean, 0.78), followed by BPAF (0.71) and BPA (0.67), indicating strong partitioning to the plasma fraction. However, bisphenol AP was more frequently detected in the RBC fraction. Estimated total daily intake (EDI) of BPA was in the range of 0.0048-0.75 μg/kg bw/day for the participants, and adults aged >50 years had comparatively lower EDI. To our knowledge, this is the first study to assess the occurrence and partitioning of BPA alternatives in paired human plasma and RBCs from the Chinese general population.
Scopus Subject Areas
- Environmental Chemistry